Polymorphism of Prolificacy Genes (BMP15, BMPR 1B and GDF9), in the Native Goat (Capra hircus) of Cameroon

Patrick Wouobeng, Jaures Kouam Simo, Felix Meutchieye, Manjeli Yacouba, Gloria Achieng, Jack Tutah, Collins Mutai, Morris Agaba


The main objective was to contribute to a better understanding of molecular characteristics of the local goat in order to improve its productivity and specifically to: analyse genetic polymorphism of three prolificacy genes (BMP15, BMPR1B, and GDF9) and test the association of genetic polymorphism and prolificacy of local goats. Tissue samples were collected from 446 animals, and 24 representative female goats were selected to analyse the genetic polymorphism of the prolificacy genes. The selected goats were divided into two groups of 12 females for high prolificacy (more than three kids consecutively in four parity) and 12 females for low prolificacy (less than two kids consecutively in four parity). Chi-square was used to test the association between genetic polymorphism and prolificacy of local goat. The main results showed that BMP15 gene is monomorphic, whereas the two other genes (BMPR1B and GDF9) display polymorphism. For BMPR1B gene, the ten mutations found did not change the corresponding amino acid. Allelic and genotypes frequencies of mutations of this gene varied from one mutation to another and between the two groups of females (high and low prolificacy). Chi-square test of the polymorphism of this gene shows that C34T and A120G mutations of exon 3 are significantly associated (p < 0.05) with prolificacy and can be considered as potential genetic markers for improving prolificacy in the native goat. For the GDF9 gene, three mutations were detected in exon 1 with alleles A and G1 of frequency 0.261 and 0.130 for A35G; G2 and C1 of frequency 0.696 and 0.304 for G81C; then G3 and C2 of frequency 0.696 and 0.304 for G255C. The mutations G81C and G255C appeared under BLAST and were missense mutations P27A and A85G respectively while A35G is located in the non-translated 5’ region of the gene. Chi-square test between each genotype for any site and the prolificacy was not significant (P > 0.01) suggesting that these two characters are not associated. Two mutations were detected in exon 2 at C881T and A1160G sites with C and T and A and G alleles respectively. The two mutations changed the corresponding amino acid from Alanine to Valine at the position 273 in the protein and from Valine to Isoleucine at the position 397 in the protein respectively. Allelic and genotypes frequencies of mutations varied from one mutation to another and between the two groups of females (high and low prolificacy). Chi-square test of the polymorphism shows that, although C881T and A1160G mutations were not significantly associated (P > 0.05) with prolificacy, the alleles responsible for the variation of amino acid increased the litter size. Therefore, further studies with increased sample size will help to verify the results.


Prolificacy, Litter size, Native goat, Polymorphism, BMP15, BMPR1B, GDF9


Abdel-Rahman SM. Mustafa YA. Abd Errasool HA. El-Hanafy AA. Elmaghraby AM 2013. Polymorphism in BMP15 gene and its association with litter size in Anglo-Nubian goat. Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry. 29 (4): 675-683.

Alakilli, SYM., Mahrous KF. Salem LM. Ahmed ES 2012. Genetic polymorphism of five genes associated with growth traits in goat. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 11 (82): 14738-14748. http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB.

Anderson S 2003. Analysis: Animal genetic resources and sustainable livelihoods. Ecological Economics. 45: 331-339.

Anous MR. Rashed MA. Metawi HRM. Saad YM 2009. Identification of fecundity gene in Egyptian goat. Egypt. J. Sheep Goat Sci. 4(1): 1-19.

Arefnezhad B. Niazi A. Zamiri MJ. Mehdizadeh-Gazooii Y 2010. Identification of New Mutations in GDF9 Gene of Raiini and Markhoz Goats. The 4th Iranian Congress on Animal Science, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Karaj, Iran. p120.

Chenyambuga S 2002. Genetic characterisation of indigenous goat populations of sub-Saharan Africa using microsatelite DNA markers. PhD thesis, Department of Animal Science and Production, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Sokoine, Tanzania.

Chu MX. Cheng DX. Liu WZ. Fang L. Ye SC 2006. Association between melatonin receptor 1A gene and expression of reproductive seasonality in sheep. Asian Austral. J. Anim. 19: 79-84.

Chu MX. Jiao CL. He YQ. Wang JY. Liu ZH. Chen GH 2007a. Association between PCR-SSCP of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 gene and prolificacy in Jining Grey goats. Anim. Biotechnol. 18: 263-274.

Chu MX. Mu YL. Fang L. Ye SC. Sun SH 2007. Prolactin receptor as a candidate gene for prolificacy of Small Tail Han Sheep. Animal Biotechnology. 18(1): 65-73.

Daniel V. Laurent S. Florence B. Anne O. Yves A. Edmond PC 1996. A Genetic Linkage Map of the Male Goat Genome. Genetics. 144: 279-305

Davis GH. Balakmrishnan L. Ross IK. Wilson T. Galloway SM. Lumsden BM. Hanrahan JP. Mullen M. Mao KZ. Wang GL. Zhao ZS. Zeng YQ. Reobenson JJ. Mavrogenis AP. Papachristoforou C. Peter C. Raumung, R. Cardyn P. Boujenane, I. Kockett NE. Eythorsdotter E. Arranz JJ. Notter DR 2006. Investigation of the Booroola (FecB) and Inverdale (FecXI) mutations in 21 prolific breeds and strains of sheep sampled in 13 countries. Animal Reproduction Science. 92: 87-96.

Davis GH. Galloway SM. Ross IK. Gregan SM. Ward J. et al., 2002. DNA tests in prolific sheep from eight countries provide new evidence on origin of the Booroola (FecB) mutation. BiolReprod. 66: 1869-1874.

Fajemilehin OK. Salako AE 2008. Body measurement characteristics of the West African Dwarf (WAD) Goat in deciduous forest zone of Southwestern Nigeria. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 7(14): 2521-2526.

FAO 1994. A manual for the primary animal health care workers. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy.

FAO 1999. The global strategy of the management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources. Executive Brief., FAO, Rome.

FAO 2008. L’état des ressources zoo génétiques pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture dans le monde, édité par Barbara Rischkowsky et DafyddPilling. Rome

FAO 2010. The State of Food and Agriculture, Livestock in the Balance. Rome.

FengT. Geng CX. Lang XZ. Chu MX. Cao GL. Di R. Fang L. Chen HQ. Liu XL. Li N. 2011. Polymorphisms of caprine GDF gene and their association with litter size in Jining Grey goats. Mol. Biol. Rep. 38: 5189-5197.

Guan F. Liu SR. Shi GQ. Yang LG. 2006. Polymorphism of FecB gene in nine sheep breeds or strains and its effects on litter size, lamb growth and development. Anim. Reprod Sci. 99: 44-52.

Hadizadeh M. Mohammad RM. Ali N. Ali E. Yasser M 2014. Search for polymorphism in growth and differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) gene in prolific beetal and tali goats (Capra hircus). J. Bio. & Env. Sci. 4 (4): 186-191.

Hanrahan JP. Gregan SM. Mulsant P. Mullen M. Davis GH. Powell R. alloway SM 2004. Mutations in the genes for oocyte-derived growth factors GDF9 and BMP15 are associated with both increased ovulation rate and sterility in Cambridge and Belclare sheep (Ovis aries). Biology of Reproduction. 70: 900-909.

http:// align.genome.jp. Consulted in June 2014

http:// dna.leeds.ac.uk/genescreen. Consulted in June 2014

http:// genepop.curtin.edu.au. Consulted in June 2014

http:// mbio.ncsu.edu/BioEdit. Consulted in June 2014

Hua GH. Chen SL. Ai JT. Yang LG 2008. None of polymorphism of ovine fecundity major genes FecB and FecX was tested in goat. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 108: 279-286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2007.08.013.

ILRI : http://dagris.ilri.cgiar.org/display.asp?ID=803.

Kunene N. Bezuidenhout CC. Nsahli IV 2009. Genetic and phenotypic diversity in Zulu sheep populations; implication for exploitation and conservation. Small Ruminant Research. 84: 100-107.

Li MH. Zhao SH. Bian C. Wang HS. Wei H. Liu B. Yu M. Fan B. Chen SL. Zhu MJ. Li SJ. Xiong, TA. Li K 2002. Genetic relationships among twelve Chinese indigenous goat populations based on microsatellite analysis. Génét. Sél. Evol. 34: 729-744.

Lin JB. Du ZY. Qin C. Wang JF. Ran X 2007. Polymorphism of BMP15 gene in Guizhou white goats. Abstract. China Anim. Husb. Vet. Med. 39 (12): 21-24. http://en.cnki.com.cn/ Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-XMYS200712008.htm

Liu SF. Yan YC. Du LX 2003. Advances on localization and molecular mechanism of FecB gene. Yi Chuan. 25: 93-96.

Melo EO. Silva BDM. Castro EA. Silva T. Paiva SR. Sartori R. Franco MM. Souza C. Neves JP 2008. A novel mutation in the growth and differentiation factor 9 GDF9 gene is associated, in homozygosis, with increased ovulation rate in Santa Ines sheep. Biol. Reprod. 78 : p371.

Ministère de l’élevage des pêches et des industries animales: république du Cameroun, 18th alive executive committee, 7-8th November, 2011 - Douala, Cameroon, Exposé du Dr BASCHIROU DEMSA, Directeur des Services Vétérinaires, p5.

Mulsant P. Lecerf F. Fabre S. Schibler L. Monget P. Lanneluc I. Pisselet C. Riquet J. Monniaux, D. Callebaut I. Cribiu E. Thimonieri J., Teyssieri, J., Bodin, L., Cognie, Y., Chitour, N., and Elsen, J., 2001. Mutation in bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB is associated with increased ovulation rate in Booroola Merino ewes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 98: 5104-5109.

Palai TK. Maity A. Bisoi PC. Polley S. Mukharjee A. De S. 2012. Screening of BMP15 (FecX) fecundity gene in prolific raighar goats of odisha. J. Cell tissue research. 12 (3): 3285-3589.

Polley S. De S. Batabyal S. Kaushik R.Yadav P. Arora SJ. Chattopadhyay S. Pan S. Brahma B. Datta KT. Goswami, SL 2009. Polymorphism of fecundity genes (BMPR1B, BMP15 and GDF9) in the Indian prolific Black Bengal goat. Small Ruminant Research. 85: 122-129.

Ran XQ. Lin JB. Du ZY. Qing C. Wang JF 2009. Diversity of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in White Goat of Guizhou province and evolution of the encoded proteins. Zool. Res. 30: 593-602.

Rege JEO 1994. Indigenous African small ruminants: a case of characterisation and improvement In Small ruminant Research and Development. Proc 2nd Bi-annual Conference of the Small Ruminant Network. AICC, Arusha, Tanzania, p10

Ren ZZ. Cai Hf. Luo WX. Liu RY 2010. GDF9 and BMP15 Genes Analysis of Genetic Variation on Qianbei-pockmarked Goats. China Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Medicine. 37(7): 99-102.

Serrano M. Calvo JH. Martínez M. Marcos-Carcavilla A. Cuevas J. González C. Jurado JJ. de Tejada, PD 2009. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered Spanish Guadarrama goat breed. BMC Genet.10: p61.

Silva BD. Castro EA. Souza CJ. Paiva SR. Sartori R. Franco MM. Azevedo HC. Silva TA. Vieira, AM. Neves JP. Mel EO2011. A new polymorphism in the Growth and Differentiation Factor 9 (GDF9) gene is associated with increased ovulation rate and prolificacy in homozygous sheep. Animal Genetics. 42(1): 89-92.

Souza CJ. MacDougall C. MacDougall C. Campbell BK. McNeilly AS. Baird DT 2001. The Booroola (FecB) phenotype is associated with a mutation in the bone morphogenetic receptor type 1B (BMPRIB) gene. Journal of Endocrinology. 169 (2): 1-6.

Sun W. Chang H. Musa HH. Mingxing C 2010. Study on relationship between microsatellite polymorphism and producing ability on litter size trait of Hu sheep in China. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 9(50): 8704-8711

Wang GL. Mao XZ. Davis, GH. Zhao ZS. Zhang LJ. Zeng YQ 2003a. DNA tests in Hu sheep and Han sheep (small tail) showed the existence of Booroola (FecB) mutation. J. Nanjing Agric. Univ. 26: 104-106.

Wang JY. Lan ZR. Zhang XM 2012. Advances in Molecular Breeding Research of Goat Fecundity. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 11 (4): 449-453.

Wang QG. Zhong FG. Li H. Wang XH. Liu SR. Chen XJ 2003b. The polymorphism of BMPRIB gene associated with litter size in sheep. Grass-feeding Livest. (2): 20-23.

Wang QG. Zhong FG. Li H. Wang XH. Liu SR. Chen XJ. Gan SQ 2005. Detection on major gene on litter size in sheep. Hereditas (Beijing). 27: 80-84.

Wang Y. Yuanxiao L. Nana Z. Zhanbin W. Junyan B 2011. Polymorphism of Exon 2 of BMP15 Gene and Its Relationship with Litter Size of Two Chinese Goats. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Science 24(7): 905-911.

Wilson T. Wu XY. Juengel JL. Ross IK. Lumsden JM. Lord EA. Dodds KG. Walling GA. McEwan JC. O’Connell AR. McNatty KP. Montgomery GW 2001. Highly prolific Booroola sheep have a mutation in the intracellular kinase domain of bone morphogenetic protein IB receptor (ALK-6) that is expressed in both oocytes and granulosa cells. Biology of Reproduction 64: 1225-1235.

Wu W. Hua G. Yang L. Wen Q.Zhang C. Zoheir KM. Chen S 2006. Association analysis of the INHA gene with litter size in Boer goats. Small Ruminant Research. 2009. 82: 139-143.

Yadav A. Yadav BR 2008. DNA Fingerprint: Genetic relationship in six Indian goat breeds. Indian J. Biotechnol. 7: 487-490.

Yan YD. Chu MX. Zeng YQ. Fang L. Ye SC. Wang LM. Guo QK. Han DQ. Zhang ZX. Wang X. J. Zhang XZ 2005. Study on bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB as a candidate gene for prolificacy in Small Tailed Han sheep and Hu sheep. J. Agric. Biotechnol. 13: 66-71.

Yosefabad SF. Shayegh J. Maheri-Sis N. Barzegari A. Gorbani A. Biroonara A. Ghoreishi H. Lotfi A. 2011. Sequence Assigning of the Growth Differentiation Factor 9 (GDF9) Gene in Markhoz Goats. Int. J. Anim. Veter. Adv. 3 (4): 274-276.

Zhang CY. Chen SL. Li X. Xu DQ. Zhang Y. Yang LG 2009. Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates for reproduction traits in the Boer dam. Livest. Sci. 125: 60-65.

Zhang C. Zhang W. Luo H. Yue W. Gao M. Jia Z 2008. A new single nucleotide polymorphism in the IGF I gene and its association with growth traits in the Nanjiang Huang goat. Asian Austral. J. Anim. 21: 1073-1079.

Zhang XM. Wang JY. Lan ZR 2012. Advances in molecular breeding research of goat fecundity. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 11 (4): 449-453.

Zhu GQ. Wang QI. Kang YG. Lv YZ. Cao BY 2013. Polymorphisms in GDF9 Gene and Its Relationship with litter size in five breeds of Black goats. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science. 3 (3): 625-628.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Life, Earth Sciences and the UniverseUniversity of Tlemcen PO.Box 119,  13000 Tlemcen, Algeria. E-mail: gen.biodv.journal@gmail.com

Copyright © 2017 University of Tlemcen - ALGERIA