Genetic diversity and origin of Namchi cattle breed inferred by matrilineage analyses

Ngono Ema Patrick Jolly, Meutchieye Félix, Keambou Tiambo Christian, Manjeli Yacouba

Abstract


In animal genetic studies, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis offers a way to detect changes in populations over time along with their maternal origin and migration routes. To determine these patterns in Namchi cattle breeds of Cameroon, analyses of 17 sequences of a 336 base pair fragment of the mtDNA D-loop region from two populations (Namchi Poli and Namchi Ngaoundere) were conducted in conjunction with previously published sequences from African, European, Japanese and Chinese subjects. As expected for an African taurine breed, all individuals in the study were found to be members of haplogroup T1. Due to the size of fragment analyzed, only one sub-haplogroup (T1c)
could be detected, at a rate of 5.88%.This suggested that The Namchi cattle breed originated most probably from south west Asia and migrated to Cameroon through the Ismuth of Suez to Egypt and through Arabia to Somalia and Ethiopia. A relatively high nucleotide diversity (π) was found in Namchi Poli population (0.03421±0.00582) while in Namchi Ngaoundere a value of 0.00980±0.00185 was obtained, for a total nucleotide diversity of 0.01387±0.00234. The high genetic diversity observed in Namchi cattle breed reflects not only the presence of sub-haplogroups T1 but also an introgression from hybridization. This study provides new information regarding the sub haplogroups of the Namchi cattle, their origin and migration routes and their genetic diversity which seems to have been affected by gene flow with zebus like White Fulani or Red Fulani. To facilitate the preservation and the conservation of the Namchi cattle breed in Cameroon, it is therefore important to adopt effective breeding management practices.



Keywords


diversity; haplogroup; mitochondrial DNA; Namchi; Cameroon.

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