A COMPREHENSIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF GUELMOISE, A NATIVE CATTLE BREED FROM EASTERN ALGERIA

Rahal Ourida, Aissaoui Chadli, Elmokhefi M’hamed, Sahraou Hossem, Ciani Elena, Gaouar Semir Bechir Suheil

Abstract


The present study was a global and a first characterization (Typology, biometric, biochemical and contribution on the genetic characterization) of the Guelmoise local cattle breed. A structured questionnaire surveys were carried out in 42 farms spread over the four wilayas of the north-eastern region of Algeria in order to characterize the local cattle population of Guelmoise and their mode of rearing. These surveys focused on the characteristics of the farms (socio-economic condition of the farmer, mode of breeding, reproduction and also to take samples of milk and blood). A total of 164 adult animals were selected for morphological description and body measurements (148 females and 16 males). The livestock system has an extensive nature and men are the main responsible for these farms. The height at withers (HaW), body length (BL), Heart Girth (HG), Spiral Tower (ST) and estimated weight (W) in Guelmoise cattle were 115 ± 0.07, 118 ± 0.08, 154 ± 0.09, 187 ± 0.11 cm and 258 , 12 ± 43.12 kg respectively in females and 171 ± 0.16, 176 ± 0.18, 187 ± 0.08, 225 ± 0.08 cm and 462 ± 59.67 kg respectively in males. Multivariate statistical analyses have allowed identifying four different classes were defined as follows morphometric measurements, weight and age in females as in males. Estimated age at first calving was 39.40 months while the calving interval varies between 14 to17 months and the reproductive life of the cows (13,7 years).The average daily production of milk 5,55 ± 1,67 liters in spring with a duration of lactation varies between 6 to 7 month. The physico-chemical characteristics of milk were focused on the Fat content (FC), Protein content (PC), Lactose (Lact), Dry extract (DE), Defatted dry extract (DDE) and freezing point depression (FPD) were respectively 2.85 ± 0.89%, 3.60 ± 0.39%, 4.82 ± 0.13%, 11.84 ± 0.90%, 9.13 ± 0.41% and 0.56 ± 0,01°C. The
genotyping of 24 individuals of the Guelmoise population using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip, we found that the observed heterozygosity was globally equivalent to 0.30. The inbreeding measured by Fis was slightly positive (~0.04) indicating the absence of a phenomenon of selection. The data contribute to the feasibility of a conservation and selection programme for this breed and the results are useful for the implementation of a conservation strategy that should aim to conserve animals. The Guelmoise cattle can be used as an alternative genetic resource for production improvement programs.


Keywords


Cattle, Guelmoise, morphological characterization, milk analysis, genetic characterization, SNP, Algeria.

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